Please consider reading File System Forensics by Brian carrier. It'll answer a lot, if not most of your questions. When a file is deleted, metadata generally speaking is still present. Several factors come into play (level of system/user activity, number of new files introduced, size of the volume, cleaning tools used, etc).
Metadata can also persist in Link files (as an example). So even if the file is wiped, metadata structures are lost (MFT/dir files), you could still recover timestamps.
Also consider metadata within the file (in case you are carving).
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